The finding is a product of a Public Religion Research Institute/Religion News Service survey. Democrats and the religiously unaffiliated are most likely to think there is an incompatibility of values here. Political independents are more evenly split and a plurality of Republicans think capitalism and Jesus go together just fine.
Digging into the data, the differences may be more about income than any other variable.
I guess you don't think God's seal of approval applies to systemic greed if the system hasn't been good for you. With rising inequality, the incompatible side of this ethical divide is likely to grow as the comfortable upper middle sector shrinks.
I'm reminded of the striking finding in American Grace that most of us are more likely to change our religious affiliation to fit our politics than to change our politics to fit the pronouncements of the branch of religion we identify with. As with that finding, I wonder if this poll suggests simply that the people of this country have very little articulate descriptive language with which to discuss their political or religious values, so the survey is measuring some vague impressions, not strong values-based opinions.